The Cisco CRS-3 Carrier Routing System

On March 9, 2010 Cisco announced the Cisco® CRS-3 Carrier Routing System (CRS) designed to serve as the foundation of the next-generation Internet and set the pace for the astonishing growth of video transmission, mobile devices and new online services through this decade and beyond.

With more than 12 times the traffic capacity of the nearest competing system, the Cisco CRS-3 is designed to transform the broadband communication and entertainment industry by accelerating the delivery of compelling new experiences for consumers, new revenue opportunities for service providers, and new ways to collaborate in the workplace.

Check below the amazing features of this device which can support for sure the future technologies:

Defining Scalability

  • Total capacity of up to 322 Tbps – 13 times the competition
  • Proven multichassis architecture with 3-stage fabric
  • Tried and tested QuantumFlow Array chipset to help prevent bottlenecks

Defining Core and Data Center Services

  • Built-in service intelligence allows the network and cloud to work as one
  • Multi-directional capabilities handle traffic between data centers and from core to subscriber
  • Cloud VPNs automate network connectivity

Defining Cost Savings

  • Lower cost per Gbps – uses up to 40% power of competitors
  • Optional modular power system that grows with capacity
  • Smart design uses the existing CRS-1 chassis and many components, requiring only fabric and line card upgrade

Traffic capacity / module:

Introducing the Cisco CRS-3 Carrier Routing System by Mr. John Chambers:

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Cisco CRS-3 Carrier Routing System presentation:

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Category 6 UTP

Category 6 cable, usually Cat-6, is a cable standard for Gigabit Ethernet and other network protocols that is backward compatible with the Category 5/5e and Category 3 cable standards. The main difference between Cat-6 and it’s previous versions is that CAT-6 fully utilizes all four pairs. Cat-6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise. The cable standard provides performance of up to 250 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T / 100BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T / 1000BASE-TX (Gigabit Ethernet). It is expected to suit the 10GBASE-T (10Gigabit Ethernet) standard, although with limitations on length if unshielded Cat 6 cable is used.

The cable contains four twisted copper wire pairs, just like earlier copper cable standards and when used as a patch cable, Cat-6 is normally terminated in 8P8C modular connectors. Some Cat-6 cables are too large and may be difficult to attach to 8P8C connectors without a special modular piece and are technically not standard compliant. If components of the various cable standards are intermixed, the performance of the signal path will be limited to that of the lowest category. The maximum allowed length of a Cat-6 cable is 100 meters.

The cable is terminated in either the T568A scheme or the T568B scheme. It doesn’t make any difference which is used, as they are both straight through:


Crossover is used for hub to hub, computer to computer, wherever two-way communication is necessary. All gigabit ethernet equipment, and most new 10/100Mb equipment, supports automatic crossover, meaning that either a straight-through or crossover cable may be used for any connection. However, older equipment requires the use of a straight-through cable to connect a switch to a client device, and a crossover cable to connect a switch to a switch or a client to a client. Crossover cables can be constructed by wiring one end to the T568A scheme and the other end with the T568B scheme. This will ensure that the Transmit (TX) pins on both ends are wired through to the Receive (RX) pins on the other end.

If you are starting to build a LAN network now, it’s recommend to use already CAT-6 as it can accommodate most of the usual traffic in a network based on the fact that already NIC cards are build for the speed of 1Gbps. Some useful tips regarding the use of CAT-6 and any Ethernet cable are:

– Do run cables over distances up to 100 meters with their rated speed
– If you know how to handle some cabling tools, do make your own cable if you need lots of varying lengths
– Don’t order anything less than Cat. 5e cable
– Don’t crimp or staple cable, this can easily cause breaks in the cable which are sometimes hard to track down
– Ethernet cables are not directional in any way, you cannot install one backwards
– Lighter colored cables are usually a better choice for two reasons: They are easier to see in the dark, and it’s easier to read the cable catogory stamped on the side
– Use a patch cable when connecting a computer to a router or hub, use a cross over cable when connecting two computers directly together
– If it’s possible and you know that you need higher speed that 100Mbps do not mix different type of cables on the same network segment
– Even if all the specification are saying that the CAT-6 is protected against external factors, do not mount this cables close by cable power or any other cable that can influence the performance of Ethernet cable.

Below you can find a presentation of CAT-6 “how-to” thanks to Giganet:

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Resources used:

Cisco: Quick IOS check in 4 simple steps

This post is rather for the beginners in Cisco’s world than for advance professionals, but still I encounter situation when IOS image was corrupted even if it was uploaded to the device by a network guru. Why? It’s quite simple! Because you can be the master of the Cisco networking,  but still sometime you cannot control the device behavior or the transport of the packets to destination.

The problems is that in case of a corrupted IOS image being uploaded on a Cisco device, and having that device reloaded you can run into situation when it will not boot up anymore. When the device is in front of you, or on your desk, there is not a problem, because you can troubleshoot, find the issue (e.g wrong or corrupted IOS image) and solve it! But, what if your device is at 5000 km distance, it is 3:00 AM and you have no professional help on that location?! That’s one ugly situation and the reason for which I always insist to verify the IOS image after it is uploaded and ready to go into production.

For those of you who are dealing with this stuff everyday, this post may seem like a joke, but I bet that there are out there IT’s which never check this stuff or they are beginners and don’t know how to do it. It’s more simple that you may think it is, make you spend about 4-5 minutes for a full check, but can spare you for bigger problems in the future.

So, what are the 4 steps:
1. Check what Cisco device you have (to know what IOS image you need)
2. Check what IOS image Cisco device has (to know what IOS release to download)
3. Verify the IOS image
4. Check the results of your verification
As simplest as it can get.

Please check the tutorial by clicking the image below:

IOS check

For those who cannot see a Flash movie, please read this text file, that consist of the command you should perform for IOS checking.

Cisco: Layer 1 link failure detection

It has been a while since I didn’t post anything here, but it was holidays and I used that time to relax and rest after a year of work. Following this idea I wish you all “Happy New Year” and all the best in 2009.

Today I planned to write about something easy to implement (just to get in shape), but ignored by some network engineer. For me, Layer 1 issues are very annoying, and here I’m talking mostly about the cases when everything look perfect on your side, cable is plugged in, you have green light for the link, but nothing is working.

Luckily some smart engineers think to develop and implement a feature called Unidirectional Link Detection (UDLD). UDLD is used to detect when the send channel (Tx) of a cable is down, but not the receive channel (Rx) and vice versa. This situation typically can occur in a fiber optic cable when there is a break on one side of the cable run or in copper cable when Rx or Tx pair is broken. When UDLD detects this situation the interface is brought down to prevent spanning-tree loops and black holes due to  unidirectional links.Remember, UDLD is a Layer 2 protocol that with Layer 1 mechanisms to determine the physical status of a link.

Please have a look below for a configuration example: